web3.js – 准备智能合约

准备一个简单的智能合约,用于部署演示。

MyContract.sol

MyContract.sol的solidity代码如下:

// 声明solidity版本
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;

// 声明智能合约MyContract,合约的所有代码都包含在花括号中。
contract MyContract {

    // 声明一个名为value的状态变量
    string value;

    // 合约构造函数,每当将合约部署到网络时都会调用它。
    // 此函数具有public函数修饰符,以确保它对公共接口可用。
    // 在这个函数中,我们将公共变量value的值设置为“myValue”。
    constructor() public {
        value = "myValue";
    }

    // 本函数读取值状态变量的值。可见性设置为public,以便外部帐户可以访问它。
    // 它还包含view修饰符并指定一个字符串返回值。
    function get() public view returns(string memory ) {
        return value;
    }

    // 本函数设置值状态变量的值。可见性设置为public,以便外部帐户可以访问它。
    function set(string memory _value) public {
        value = _value;
    }
}

此智能合约的主要功能是,设置、读取一个状态变量value

获取字节码与ABI

可以使用remix编译,获取字节码和ABI。如下图所示:

图

如图中所示,编译完后,点击ABI拷贝ABI代码,点击Bytecode获取字节码(第3步)。

ABI码

[
    {
        "constant": false,
        "inputs": [
            {
                "internalType": "string",
                "name": "_value",
                "type": "string"
            }
        ],
        "name": "set",
        "outputs": [],
        "payable": false,
        "stateMutability": "nonpayable",
        "type": "function"
    },
    {
        "constant": true,
        "inputs": [],
        "name": "get",
        "outputs": [
            {
                "internalType": "string",
                "name": "",
                "type": "string"
            }
        ],
        "payable": false,
        "stateMutability": "view",
        "type": "function"
    },
    {
        "inputs": [],
        "payable": false,
        "stateMutability": "nonpayable",
        "type": "constructor"
    }
]

字节码

点击Bytecode获取字节码:

{
    "linkReferences": {},
    "object": "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",
    "opcodes": "PUSH1 0x80 PUSH1 0x40 MSTORE CALLVALUE DUP1 ISZERO PUSH2 0x10 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST POP PUSH1 0x40 MLOAD DUP1 PUSH1 0x40 ADD PUSH1 0x40 MSTORE DUP1 PUSH1 0x7 DUP2 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 ADD PUSH32 0x6D7956616C756500000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 DUP2 MSTORE POP PUSH1 0x0 SWAP1 DUP1 MLOAD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP1 PUSH2 0x5C SWAP3 SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH2 0x62 JUMP JUMPDEST POP PUSH2 0x107 JUMP JUMPDEST DUP3 DUP1 SLOAD PUSH1 0x1 DUP2 PUSH1 0x1 AND ISZERO PUSH2 0x100 MUL SUB AND PUSH1 0x2 SWAP1 DIV SWAP1 PUSH1 0x0 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 PUSH1 0x0 KECCAK256 SWAP1 PUSH1 0x1F ADD PUSH1 0x20 SWAP1 DIV DUP2 ADD SWAP3 DUP3 PUSH1 0x1F LT PUSH2 0xA3 JUMPI DUP1 MLOAD PUSH1 0xFF NOT AND DUP4 DUP1 ADD OR DUP6 SSTORE PUSH2 0xD1 JUMP JUMPDEST DUP3 DUP1 ADD PUSH1 0x1 ADD DUP6 SSTORE DUP3 ISZERO PUSH2 0xD1 JUMPI SWAP2 DUP3 ADD JUMPDEST DUP3 DUP2 GT ISZERO PUSH2 0xD0 JUMPI DUP3 MLOAD DUP3 SSTORE SWAP2 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH1 0x1 ADD SWAP1 PUSH2 0xB5 JUMP JUMPDEST JUMPDEST POP SWAP1 POP PUSH2 0xDE SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH2 0xE2 JUMP JUMPDEST POP SWAP1 JUMP JUMPDEST PUSH2 0x104 SWAP2 SWAP1 JUMPDEST DUP1 DUP3 GT ISZERO PUSH2 0x100 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP2 PUSH1 0x0 SWAP1 SSTORE POP PUSH1 0x1 ADD PUSH2 0xE8 JUMP JUMPDEST POP SWAP1 JUMP JUMPDEST SWAP1 JUMP JUMPDEST PUSH2 0x30F DUP1 PUSH2 0x116 PUSH1 0x0 CODECOPY PUSH1 0x0 RETURN INVALID PUSH1 0x80 PUSH1 0x40 MSTORE CALLVALUE DUP1 ISZERO PUSH2 0x10 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST POP PUSH1 0x4 CALLDATASIZE LT PUSH2 0x36 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 CALLDATALOAD PUSH1 0xE0 SHR DUP1 PUSH4 0x4ED3885E EQ PUSH2 0x3B JUMPI DUP1 PUSH4 0x6D4CE63C EQ PUSH2 0xF6 JUMPI JUMPDEST PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST PUSH2 0xF4 PUSH1 0x4 DUP1 CALLDATASIZE SUB PUSH1 0x20 DUP2 LT ISZERO PUSH2 0x51 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST DUP2 ADD SWAP1 DUP1 DUP1 CALLDATALOAD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP1 PUSH5 0x100000000 DUP2 GT ISZERO PUSH2 0x6E JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST DUP3 ADD DUP4 PUSH1 0x20 DUP3 ADD GT ISZERO PUSH2 0x80 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST DUP1 CALLDATALOAD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP2 DUP5 PUSH1 0x1 DUP4 MUL DUP5 ADD GT PUSH5 0x100000000 DUP4 GT OR ISZERO PUSH2 0xA2 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 REVERT JUMPDEST SWAP2 SWAP1 DUP1 DUP1 PUSH1 0x1F ADD PUSH1 0x20 DUP1 SWAP2 DIV MUL PUSH1 0x20 ADD PUSH1 0x40 MLOAD SWAP1 DUP2 ADD PUSH1 0x40 MSTORE DUP1 SWAP4 SWAP3 SWAP2 SWAP1 DUP2 DUP2 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 ADD DUP4 DUP4 DUP1 DUP3 DUP5 CALLDATACOPY PUSH1 0x0 DUP2 DUP5 ADD MSTORE PUSH1 0x1F NOT PUSH1 0x1F DUP3 ADD AND SWAP1 POP DUP1 DUP4 ADD SWAP3 POP POP POP POP POP POP POP SWAP2 SWAP3 SWAP2 SWAP3 SWAP1 POP POP POP PUSH2 0x179 JUMP JUMPDEST STOP JUMPDEST PUSH2 0xFE PUSH2 0x193 JUMP JUMPDEST PUSH1 0x40 MLOAD DUP1 DUP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD DUP3 DUP2 SUB DUP3 MSTORE DUP4 DUP2 DUP2 MLOAD DUP2 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP2 POP DUP1 MLOAD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP1 DUP1 DUP4 DUP4 PUSH1 0x0 JUMPDEST DUP4 DUP2 LT ISZERO PUSH2 0x13E JUMPI DUP1 DUP3 ADD MLOAD DUP2 DUP5 ADD MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 DUP2 ADD SWAP1 POP PUSH2 0x123 JUMP JUMPDEST POP POP POP POP SWAP1 POP SWAP1 DUP2 ADD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x1F AND DUP1 ISZERO PUSH2 0x16B JUMPI DUP1 DUP3 SUB DUP1 MLOAD PUSH1 0x1 DUP4 PUSH1 0x20 SUB PUSH2 0x100 EXP SUB NOT AND DUP2 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP2 POP JUMPDEST POP SWAP3 POP POP POP PUSH1 0x40 MLOAD DUP1 SWAP2 SUB SWAP1 RETURN JUMPDEST DUP1 PUSH1 0x0 SWAP1 DUP1 MLOAD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP1 PUSH2 0x18F SWAP3 SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH2 0x235 JUMP JUMPDEST POP POP JUMP JUMPDEST PUSH1 0x60 PUSH1 0x0 DUP1 SLOAD PUSH1 0x1 DUP2 PUSH1 0x1 AND ISZERO PUSH2 0x100 MUL SUB AND PUSH1 0x2 SWAP1 DIV DUP1 PUSH1 0x1F ADD PUSH1 0x20 DUP1 SWAP2 DIV MUL PUSH1 0x20 ADD PUSH1 0x40 MLOAD SWAP1 DUP2 ADD PUSH1 0x40 MSTORE DUP1 SWAP3 SWAP2 SWAP1 DUP2 DUP2 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 ADD DUP3 DUP1 SLOAD PUSH1 0x1 DUP2 PUSH1 0x1 AND ISZERO PUSH2 0x100 MUL SUB AND PUSH1 0x2 SWAP1 DIV DUP1 ISZERO PUSH2 0x22B JUMPI DUP1 PUSH1 0x1F LT PUSH2 0x200 JUMPI PUSH2 0x100 DUP1 DUP4 SLOAD DIV MUL DUP4 MSTORE SWAP2 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP2 PUSH2 0x22B JUMP JUMPDEST DUP3 ADD SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH1 0x0 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 PUSH1 0x0 KECCAK256 SWAP1 JUMPDEST DUP2 SLOAD DUP2 MSTORE SWAP1 PUSH1 0x1 ADD SWAP1 PUSH1 0x20 ADD DUP1 DUP4 GT PUSH2 0x20E JUMPI DUP3 SWAP1 SUB PUSH1 0x1F AND DUP3 ADD SWAP2 JUMPDEST POP POP POP POP POP SWAP1 POP SWAP1 JUMP JUMPDEST DUP3 DUP1 SLOAD PUSH1 0x1 DUP2 PUSH1 0x1 AND ISZERO PUSH2 0x100 MUL SUB AND PUSH1 0x2 SWAP1 DIV SWAP1 PUSH1 0x0 MSTORE PUSH1 0x20 PUSH1 0x0 KECCAK256 SWAP1 PUSH1 0x1F ADD PUSH1 0x20 SWAP1 DIV DUP2 ADD SWAP3 DUP3 PUSH1 0x1F LT PUSH2 0x276 JUMPI DUP1 MLOAD PUSH1 0xFF NOT AND DUP4 DUP1 ADD OR DUP6 SSTORE PUSH2 0x2A4 JUMP JUMPDEST DUP3 DUP1 ADD PUSH1 0x1 ADD DUP6 SSTORE DUP3 ISZERO PUSH2 0x2A4 JUMPI SWAP2 DUP3 ADD JUMPDEST DUP3 DUP2 GT ISZERO PUSH2 0x2A3 JUMPI DUP3 MLOAD DUP3 SSTORE SWAP2 PUSH1 0x20 ADD SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH1 0x1 ADD SWAP1 PUSH2 0x288 JUMP JUMPDEST JUMPDEST POP SWAP1 POP PUSH2 0x2B1 SWAP2 SWAP1 PUSH2 0x2B5 JUMP JUMPDEST POP SWAP1 JUMP JUMPDEST PUSH2 0x2D7 SWAP2 SWAP1 JUMPDEST DUP1 DUP3 GT ISZERO PUSH2 0x2D3 JUMPI PUSH1 0x0 DUP2 PUSH1 0x0 SWAP1 SSTORE POP PUSH1 0x1 ADD PUSH2 0x2BB JUMP JUMPDEST POP SWAP1 JUMP JUMPDEST SWAP1 JUMP INVALID LOG2 PUSH6 0x627A7A723158 KECCAK256 0xad RETURNDATASIZE 0xc3 0xc5 0x29 CODECOPY 0xc1 0xe0 0x28 SWAP8 TIMESTAMP MUL 0xdb 0xaf 0x2d 0x5c PUSH6 0xE623507F8001 CODECOPY 0x2a SHR ADDRESS 0x4c 0x49 0xaf ADD LT PUSH5 0x736F6C6343 STOP SDIV SIGNEXTEND STOP ORIGIN ",
    "sourceMap": "136:874:0:-;;;485:57;8:9:-1;5:2;;;30:1;27;20:12;5:2;485:57:0;517:17;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:5;:17;;;;;;;;;;;;:::i;:::-;;136:874;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:::i;:::-;;;:::o;:::-;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:::o;:::-;;;;;;;"
}

拷贝字节码中object的值,赋给data


const data = "0x" + "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"

设置nonce,可以使用web3.eth.getTransactionCount()函数获取交易nonce。将构建交易对象的代码封装在一个回调函数中,如下所示:

web3.eth.getTransactionCount(account1, (err, txCount) => {
  const data = '' // 你的data值...

  const txObject = {
    nonce:    web3.utils.toHex(txCount),
    gasLimit: web3.utils.toHex(1000000),
    gasPrice: web3.utils.toHex(web3.utils.toWei('10', 'gwei')),
    data: data
  }
})


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